Gualdoni, G. S., Pérez-Tito, L., Barril, C., Sobarzo, C., & Cebral, E. (2022). Abnormal growth and morphogenesis of placenta at term is linked to adverse fetal development after perigestational alcohol consumption up to early gestation in mouse. Birth Defects Research, 1– 20. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.2063
Gestation alcohol consumption produces fetal growth restriction and malformations by affecting the embryo–fetal development. Recently a relationship between abnormal placentation and fetal malformation and intrauterine growth retardation has been suggested. However, the effects of perigestational alcohol ingestion up to early pregnancy on the placenta at term and its association with fetal abnormalities are little known.
In female mice, ethanol 10% in water was administered for 15 days previous and up to days 4 (D4), 8 (D8), or 10 (D10) of gestation (TF), and gestation continues without ethanol exposure. Control females (CF) received ethanol-free water. At day 18, feto-placental units and implantation sites were studied.
TF had increased resorptions and only fetuses from D8-TF and D10-TF had significantly increased weights versus CF. D4 and D10-TF-placentas had significantly reduced weights. All TF had increased junctional zone (JZ) and reduced labyrinth (Lab) areas (PAS-histology and morphometry) compared with CF. Fetuses with mainly with craniofacial abnormalities and skeletal defects (Alizarin red staining), significantly increase; while the fetal bone density (alizarin color intensity, ImageJ) was reduced in D4, D8 and D10-TF versus CF. Although all TF-placentas were histo-structural affected, TF-abnormal fetuses had the most severe placental anomalies, with junctional abundant glycogenic cells into the labyrinth, disorganized labyrinthine vascularization with signs of leukocyte infiltrates and feto-maternal blood mix.
Perigestational alcohol consumption up to early gestation induces at term fetal growth alterations, dysmorphology and defective skeleton, linked to deficient growth and abnormal morphogenesis of placenta, highlighting insight into the prenatal etiology of FASD.