Hartel TC, Turawa EB, Oelofse A, De Smidt JJA. Effect of maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy on birth weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in infants, children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol. BMJ Open. 2022 Jul 15;12(7):e061811. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-061811. PMID: 35840294; PMCID: PMC9295650.
Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy are particularly prevalent in low socioeconomic status populations, with an adverse association with birth outcomes and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, the direct and indirect effects of prenatal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy on cardiometabolic risk in offspring have been rather inconsistent. This may be attributed to multiple factors, such as the amount and timing of exposure to tobacco smoking and alcohol during pregnancy; the influence of maternal, environmental and socioeconomic factors; or how risk factors were defined by individual researchers and studies. Therefore, this review aims to provide a summary of the most recent evidence on birth outcomes and cardiometabolic risk in children associated with alcohol and/or tobacco exposure in utero.