Dyląg KA, Dumnicka P, Kowalska K, Migas-Majoch A, Przybyszewska K, Drożdż D. Increased incidence of renal and urinary tract anomalies among individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Birth Defects Res. 2023 Oct 12. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.2259. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37828651.
Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in a spectrum of neurodevelopmental conditions resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Animal models have confirmed the toxic effects of PAE on the kidneys and urinary tract, yet the evidence from human studies is contradictory. The purpose of this study was to establish the incidence of renal and urinary tract anomalies (RUTA), impaired kidney function, and hypertension among patients with FASD.
Methods: Children from the FASD Diagnostic Center with FASD diagnosis (FAS, pFAS, or ARND) were offered participation in the study. The control group consisted of patients from the Gastroenterology Department of the same hospital. The patients underwent renal and urinary tract ultrasound examination. The serum creatinine level was also evaluated and the blood pressure was taken twice. Polish OLAF charts were used to determine the percentiles of blood pressure.
Results: The incidence of kidney and urinary tract defects in the study group was significantly higher than in the control group (OR: 2.64 [1.60-4.34]). The kidney size among FASD patients was significantly lower (73 mm [60-83] vs. 83 mm [70-96]; p < .001) when compared to the control group. No differences were observed in the estimated glomerular filtration rate. In the study group, significantly lower systolic blood, diastolic blood pressure, percentile of systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure were observed.
Conclusions: RUTA occurred more frequently among patients with FASD compared to the control group, and decreased kidney size was also demonstrated among patients with FASD. However, impaired kidney function and the risk of hypertension were not observed.
Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37828651/