Orthodontic evaluation of children and adolescents with different types of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders

Ludwików, K., Zadurska, M. and Czochrowska, E. (2021), Orthodontic evaluation of children and adolescents with different types of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders. Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research. Accepted Author Manuscript. https://doi.org/10.1111/ocr.12557



To assess general and oral health status, including the presence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs, in children and adolescents with FASD in relation to different types of this disorder.

Setting and Sample Population

A total of 67 participants (29 males and 38 females) aged 2.5-17.8 years with confirmed diagnosis of FASD were included.

Material and Methods

The participants were divided into three subgroups: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (PFAS) and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ARND). General health, oral health status, history of dental trauma, presence of dysfunctions or parafunctions, and occlusion were examined. Additionally, the IOTN index was calculated. Selected variables were compared to the results obtained from a national monitoring survey on the oral health conditions in Poland.


In children and adolescents with FASD a number of systemic anomalies including alimentary, neurological and musculo-skeletal disorders were present. Dysfunctions and parafunctions such as mouth breathing and thumb sucking were frequently recorded. Children with FASD had an increased prevalence of distal occlusion and crossbite compared to the general population. Malocclusions were more often identified in the FAS group. No significant differences in the IOTN between different FASD groups were found. Borderline need for orthodontic treatment was more frequent in children with FASD compared to controls.


Early screening for the presence of dysfunctions/parafunctions and malocclusions in children with FASD is recommended, so that orthodontic prophylaxis and state-funded orthodontic care programs for these children are implemented.

Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ocr.12557

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