Śmiarowska, M.; Brzuchalski, B.; Grzywacz, E.; Malinowski, D.; Machoy-Mokrzyńska, A.; Pierzchlińska, A.; Białecka, M. Influence of COMT (rs4680) and DRD2 (rs1076560, rs1800497) Gene Polymorphisms on Safety and Efficacy of Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 4479. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084479
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in a course of high prenatal alcohol exposure (hPAE) are among the most common causes of developmental disorders. The main reason for pharmacological treatment of FASD children is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate (MPH) is the drug of choice. The aim of the study was to assess whether children born of hPAE with ADHD, with or without morphological FASD, differ in terms of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene polymorphisms, and if genetic predisposition affects response and safety of MPH treatment. The polymorphisms of COMT (rs4680) and DRD2 (rs1076560, rs1800497) were analyzed in DNA samples. A borderline significance was found for the correlation between MPH side effects and the G allele of COMT (rs4680) (p = 0.04994) in all ADHD children. No effect of COMT (rs4680) and DRD2 (rs1076560, rs1800497) polymorphisms and the treatment efficacy was observed. The analyzed DRD2 and COMT gene polymorphisms seem to play no role in MPH efficacy in ADHD children with hPAE, while low-activity COMT (Met158) variant carriers may be more intolerant to MPH. The MPH treatment is effective in ADHD independent of FASD, although the ADHD-FASD variant requires higher doses to be successful. These results may help in optimization and individualization in child psychiatry.